The Councils of Orange (or the Synods of Orange) comprised two synods held at Orange, France. The first (441) dealt with various church issues. The second (529) affirmed Augustine's teaching against Pelagian challenge. The first took place on November 8, AD 441, under the presidency of Hilary of Arles, with Eucherius of Lyons also being present. Seventeen bishops attended the meeting. Thirty canons (or judgements) were passed, dealing with unction, the Permission of penance, the right of asylum; recommending caution to bishops in the ordination of foreign clergy, the consecration of churches outside of their own jurisdictions, and other matters; imposing limitations on the administration of ecclesiastical rites to those who were in any way defective, either in body or mind; and emphasizing the duty of celibacy for those belonging to the clerical state, especially deacons and widows, with express reference to canon viii. of the Synod of Turin (AD 401). The exact interpretation of some of them (ii., iii., xvii.) is doubtful. Canon iv. is alleged to be in conflict with a decretal of Pope Siricius; and ii. and xviii. betray an inclination to resist the introduction of Roman customs. These canons were confirmed at the Synods of Arles about 443. On July 3, 529, another synod took place at Orange, which in the mean time had passed under Burgundian and then Ostrogothic rule. This meeting, for which occasion was given by the consecration of a church built by the governor of Gallia Narbonensis, was attended by fourteen bishops under the presidency of Caesarius of Arles. It was the chief of many councils that affirmed the theology of Augustine of Hippo against Pelagianism. It defined that faith, though a free act, resulted even in its beginnings, from the grace of God, enlightening human mind. However, it also denied the interpretation of Augustine as affirming strict predestination. It received the papal sanction. The canons of the second council played a central role in interpreting Augustine to establish what later came to be known as the Calvinist and Banezian doctrines of original sin and total depravity.